常见比特币术语及其解释(中英文对照)

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比特币(Bitcoin)

首字母大写的Bitcoin用来表示比特币的概念或整个比特币网络本身。例如:“今天我学了些有关Bitcoin协议的内容。”
而没有大写的bitcoin则表示一个记账单位。例如:“我今天转出了10个bitcoin。”该单位通常也简写为BTC或XBT。

Bitcoin - with capitalization, is used when describing the concept of Bitcoin, or the entire network itself. e.g. "I was learning about the Bitcoin protocol today."
bitcoin - without capitalization, is used to describe bitcoins as a unit of account. e.g. "I sent ten bitcoins today."; it is also often abbreviated BTC or XBT.

比特币地址(Address)

比特币地址就像一个物理地址或者电子邮件地址。这是别人付给你比特币时你唯一需要提供的信息。然而一个重要的区别是,每个地址应该只用于单笔交易。

A Bitcoin address is similar to a physical address or an email. It is the only information you need to provide for someone to pay you with Bitcoin. An important difference, however, is that each address should only be used for a single transaction.

对等式网络(P2P)

对等式网络是指,通过允许单个节点与其他节点直接交互,从而实现整个系统像有组织的集体一样运作的系统 。对于比特币来说,比特币网络以这样一种方式构建——每个用户都在传播其他用户的交易。而且重要的是,不需要银行作为第三方。

Peer-to-peer refers to systems that work like an organized collective by allowing each individual to interact directly with the others. In the case of Bitcoin, the network is built in such a way that each user is broadcasting the transactions of other users. And, crucially, no bank is required as a third party.

哈希率(Hash Rate)

哈希率是衡量比特币网络处理能力的测量单位。为保证安全,比特币网络必须进行大量的数学运算。当网络达到10Th/秒的哈希率时,就意味着它能够进行每秒10万亿次的计算。

The hash rate is the measuring unit of the processing power of the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin network must make intensive mathematical operations for security purposes. When the network reached a hash rate of 10 Th/s, it meant it could make 10 trillion calculations per second.

交易确认(Confirmation)

交易确认意味着一笔交易已经 被网络处理且不太可能被撤销。当交易被包含进一个 区块时会收到一个确认,后续的每一个区块都会增加一个确认。对于小金额交易单个确认便可视为安全,然而对于比如1000美元的大金额交易,等待6个以上的确认比较合理。每一个确认都成 指数级地降低交易撤销的风险。

Confirmation means that a transaction has been processed by the network and is highly unlikely to be reversed. Transactions receive a confirmation when they are included in a block and for each subsequent block. Even a single confirmation can be considered secure for low value transactions, although for larger amounts like $1000 USD, it makes sense to wait for 6 confirmations or more. Each confirmation exponentially decreases the risk of a reversed transaction.

区块链(Block Chain)

区块链是一个按时间顺序排列的比特币交易公共记录。区块链由所有比特币用户共享。它被用来验证比特币交易的永久性并防止双重花费

The block chain is a public record of Bitcoin transactions in chronological order. The block chain is shared between all Bitcoin users. It is used to verify the permanence of Bitcoin transactions and to prevent double spending.

密码学(Cryptography)

密码学是数学的一个分支,它让我们创造出可以提供很高安全性的数学证明。电子商务和网上银行也用到了密码学。对于比特币来说,密码学用来保证任何人都不可能使用他人钱包里的资金,或者破坏块链。密码学也用来给钱包加密,这样没有密码就用不了钱包。

Cryptography is the branch of mathematics that lets us create mathematical proofs that provide high levels of security. Online commerce and banking already uses cryptography. In the case of Bitcoin, cryptography is used to make it impossible for anybody to spend funds from another user's wallet or to corrupt the block chain. It can also be used to encrypt a wallet, so that it cannot be used without a password.

签名(Signature)

密码学签名是一个让人可以证明所有权的数学机制。对于比特币来说,一个比特币钱包和它的私钥通过一些数学魔法关联到一起。当你的比特币软件用对应的私钥为一笔交易签名,整个网络都能知道这个签名和已花费的比特币相匹配。但是,世界上没有人可以猜到你的私钥来窃取你辛苦赚来的比特币。

A cryptographic signature is a mathematical mechanism that allows someone to prove ownership. In the case of Bitcoin, a Bitcoin wallet and its private key(s) are linked by some mathematical magic. When your Bitcoin software signs a transaction with the appropriate private key, the whole network can see that the signature matches the bitcoins being spent. However, there is no way for the world to guess your private key to steal your hard-earned bitcoins.

钱包(Wallet)

比特币钱包大致实体钱包在比特币网络中的等同物。钱包中实际上包含了你的私钥,可以让你消费块链中分配给钱包的比特币。和真正的钱包一样,每个比特币钱包都可以显示它所控制的所有比特币的总余额,并允许你将一定金额的比特币付给某人。这与商家进行扣款的信用卡不同。

A Bitcoin wallet is loosely the equivalent of a physical wallet on the Bitcoin network. The wallet actually contains your private key(s) which allow you to spend the bitcoins allocated to it in the block chain. Each Bitcoin wallet can show you the total balance of all bitcoins it controls and lets you pay a specific amount to a specific person, just like a real wallet. This is different to credit cards where you are charged by the merchant.

区块(Block)

一个块是块链中的一条记录,包含并确认待处理的交易。平均约每10分钟就有一个包含交易的新块通过挖矿的方式添加到区块链中。

A block is a record in the block chain that contains and confirms many waiting transactions. Roughly every 10 minutes, on average, a new block including transactions is appended to the block chain through mining.

双重花费(Double Spend)

如果一个不怀好意的用户试图将比特币同时支付给两个不同的收款人,就被称为双重花费,简称双花。比特币挖矿区块链将就两比交易中那笔获得确认并被视为有效在网络上达成一致。

If a malicious user tries to spend their bitcoins to two different recipients at the same time, this is double spending. Bitcoin mining and the block chain are there to create a consensus on the network about which of the two transactions will confirm and be considered valid.

私钥(Private Key)

私钥是一个证明你有权从一个特定的钱包消费比特币的保密数据块,是通过一个密码学签名来实现的 。如果你使用的是钱包软件,你的私钥就存储在你的计算机内;如果使用的是在线钱包,你的私钥就存储在远程服务器上。千万不能泄露私钥,因为它们可以让你消费对应比特币钱包里的比特币。

A private key is a secret piece of data that proves your right to spend bitcoins from a specific wallet through a cryptographic signature. Your private key(s) are stored in your computer if you use a software wallet; they are stored on some remote servers if you use a web wallet. Private keys must never be revealed as they allow you to spend bitcoins for their respective Bitcoin wallet.

挖矿(Mining)

比特币挖矿是利用计算机硬件为比特币网络做数学计算进行交易确认和提高安全性的过程。作为对他们服务的奖励,矿工可以得到他们所确认的交易中包含的手续费,以及新创建的比特币。挖矿是一个专业的、竞争激烈的市场,奖金按照完成的计算量分割。并非所有的比特币用户都挖矿,挖矿赚钱也并不容易。

Bitcoin mining is the process of making computer hardware do mathematical calculations for the Bitcoin network to confirm transactions and increase security. As a reward for their services, Bitcoin miners can collect transaction fees for the transactions they confirm, along with newly created bitcoins. Mining is a specialized and competitive market where the rewards are divided up according to how much calculation is done. Not all Bitcoin users do Bitcoin mining, and it is not an easy way to make money.

Bit

Bit 是次于比特币的一个常用单位 -- 1,000,000 bits 等于1个比特币。这个单位通常在标示小费,商品和服务时更加方便。

Bit is a common unit used to designate a sub-unit of a bitcoin - 1,000,000 bits is equal to 1 bitcoin (BTC). This unit is usually more convenient for pricing tips, goods and services.

BTC

BTC 是用于标示一个比特币的常用单位。

BTC is a common unit used to designate one bitcoin.

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